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Siege of Sarajevo - Wikipedia. The Siege of Sarajevo was the longest siege of a capital city in the history of modern warfare.
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The siege lasted three times longer than the Battle of Stalingrad and more than a year longer than the Siege of Leningrad. From there they assaulted the city with artillery, tanks and small arms. The Bosnian government defence forces (ARBi. H) inside the besieged city, numbering some 7. The ARBi. H suffered 6,1.
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Bosnian Serb military casualties numbered 2,2. The 1. 99. 1 census indicates that before the siege the city and its surrounding areas had a population of 5. There are estimates that prior to the siege the population in the city proper was 4. The estimates of the number of persons living in Sarajevo after the siege ranged from between 3. One of the 1. 1 indictments against Radovan Karad.
When Yugoslavia's longtime leader Marshal Tito died in 1. Nationalism experienced a renaissance in the 1. Kosovo. A significant split soon developed on the issue of whether to stay with the Yugoslav federation (overwhelmingly favored among Serbs) or to seek independence (overwhelmingly favored among Bosniaks and Croats).
The Serb members of parliament, consisting mainly of Serb Democratic Party members, abandoned the central parliament in Sarajevo, and formed the Assembly of the Serb People of Bosnia and Herzegovina on 2. October 1. 99. 1, which marked the end of the tri- ethnic coalition that governed after the elections in 1. This Assembly established the Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina on 9 January 1. Republika Srpska in August 1. A declaration of Bosnian sovereignty on 1. October 1. 99. 1 was followed by a referendum for independence from Yugoslavia on 2.
February and 1 March 1. This referendum was boycotted by the vast majority of the Serbs. The turnout in the independence referendum was 6. Following a period of escalating tensions the opening shots in the incipient Bosnian conflict were fired when Serb paramilitary forces attacked Bosnian Croat villages around Capljina on 7 March 1.
Bosanski Brod and Bosniak town Gora. These minor attacks were followed by much more serious Serb artillery attacks on Neum on 1. March, on Bosanski Brod on 2. March 1. 99. 2 on Bijeljina. Start of the war. The attack killed two officers and one civilian. The Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina declared a state of emergency the following day.
A crowd of peace marchers, between 5. They are regarded as the first casualties of the siege. Six Serb snipers were arrested, but were exchanged when the Serbs threatened to kill the commandant of the Bosnian police academy arrested the previous day with the takeover of the academy. The Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) attacked the Ministry of Training Academy in Vraca, the central tramway depot and the Old Town district with mortars, artillery and tank fire, and also seized control of Sarajevo's airport. Serb military, police and paramilitary forces attacked towns and villages and then, sometimes assisted by local Serb residents, applied what soon became their standard operating procedure: Bosniak houses and apartments were systematically ransacked or burned; civilians were rounded up, some beaten or killed; and men were separated from the women. Many of the men were forcibly removed to prison camps.
The women were incarcerated in detention centres in extremely unhygienic conditions and suffered numerous atrocious abuses. Many were repeatedly raped.
Survivors testified that Serb soldiers and police would visit the detention centres, select one or more women, take them out and rape them. She came to Sarajevo to study medicine and was in her sixth year of study when the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina started in the early days of April 1. On 1. 5 November 2. Faculty of Medicine at the University of Sarajevo posthumously awarded Suada a medical degree. Artillery, together with other ordnance and equipment that would prove key in the coming siege of the city, was deployed at this time. In April 1. 99. 2, the Bosnian government under President Alija Izetbegovi.
They blocked the major access roads, cutting supplies of food and medicine, and also cut off the city's utilities (e. Although they possessed superior weaponry they were greatly outnumbered by ARBi.
H soldiers who were defending the city. After numerous JNA armored columns failed to take the city, the Serbs began to concentrate their efforts on weakening it by using continual bombardment from at least 2. The resulting explosion killed 1. On 8 January 1. 99.
Hakija Turajli. The Serbs, acting on radioed information from a Serbian military liaison officer at the airport that . After a Serbian military liaison officer identified the passenger as Turajli. The rear door was opened, and one of the Serbs fired seven shots at Turajli. Six bullets struck him in the chest and arms, killing him instantly. Serb forces outside the city continuously shelled the government defenders.
Inside the city, the Serbs controlled most of the major military positions and the supply of arms. With snipers taking up positions in the city, signs reading Pazite, Snajper! The sniper killings of Admira Ismi. To counterbalance the siege, on 3. May 1. 99. 2 the Security Council demanded Sarajevo Airport be included in a Sarajevo security zone. Bosnian black market criminals who joined the army at the outset of the war illegally smuggled arms into the city through Serb lines, and raids on Serb- held positions within the city yielded more. The Sarajevo Tunnel, completed in mid- 1.
Bosnian conflict, including the defenders of Sarajevo). It helped supplies and weaponry reach the city's defenders, and enabled some inhabitants to leave. By September 1. 99. Sarajevo had suffered some degree of damage, and 3. Other significant buildings damaged or destroyed included the presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the National Library, which was set on fire and burned to the ground, destroying thousands of irreplaceable texts.
March 1. 99. 6. Citizens of Sarajevo in line for water. The shelling took a heavy toll on residents. Mass killings of civilians, primarily by mortar attacks, made headline news in the West. On 1 June 1. 99. 3, 1. On 1. 2 July, twelve people were killed while waiting in line for water. The biggest single loss of life was the first Markale marketplace massacre on 5 February 1.
Medical facilities were overwhelmed by the scale of the civilian casualties, and only a small number of the wounded benefited from medical evacuation programmes like 1. Operation Irma. Admiral Jeremy Boorda, to launch air strikes against artillery and mortar positions in and around Sarajevo that were determined by UNPROFOR to be responsible for attacks against civilian targets. During the seizure, the Serbs injured a Ukrainian UNPROFOR peacekeeper. In response to the attack, the UN once again requested NATO air support. A- 1. 0 aircraft repeatedly strafed Serb targets, prompting the Serbs to return the seized weapons to the collection site. In response, two British SEPECAT Jaguar aircraft struck and destroyed a Serb tank. In response to the attack, the Bosnian Serbs seized heavy weapons from a UN- guarded depot, and began shelling targets.
General Rupert Smith, requested NATO air strikes. NATO honored the request on 2. May and 2. 6 May 1. Serb ammunition dump near Pale.
They wore French uniforms, flak jackets and helmets, were armed with French weapons and drove a French armoured personnel carrier (APC) . The soldiers disarmed the 1. Ten were taken to an unknown destination while two remained on the bridge as human shields. The French responded by sending 3. Two French soldiers were killed in the clash and five were wounded, while four Serb soldiers were killed and four were taken prisoner. At the end of the day, the Serbs remained in control of the southern portion of the bridge, while the French occupied the northern portion.
On 3. 0 August, the Secretary General of NATO announced the start of air strikes, supported by UNPROFOR rapid reaction force artillery attacks. The Bosnian Serb leaders were given a deadline of 4 September, and the Operation Deliberate Force bombing campaign was suspended. Heavy weapons had not been removed when the deadline passed. On 5 September, air strikes resumed on Bosnian Serb positions around Sarajevo and near the Bosnian Serb headquarters at Pale.
On 1. 4 September, they were again suspended, this time to allow the implementation of an agreement with the Bosnian Serbs which included the withdrawal of heavy weapons from the exclusion zone. Finally, on 2. 0 September 1. French General Bernard Janvier (Commander of UNPROFOR) and U. S. Operation Deliberate Force was terminated. The Serbs were slowly driven back in Sarajevo and elsewhere, which eventually allowed the city's heating, electricity and water supplies to be restored. A ceasefire was reached in October 1. On 1. 4 December, the Dayton Agreement brought peace to the country and led to stabilization.
One of the last acts of hostility of the siege occurred at around 6 pm on 9 January 1. Sarajevo, killing a 5. Mirsada Duri. After the attack, French troops from the Implementation Force (IFOR) searched the building from which the grenade was launched but did not capture the perpetrator(s). No person has ever been arrested for the attack. The Bosnian government officially declared an end to the siege of Sarajevo on 2. February 1. 99. 6, when Bosnian Serb forces left positions in and around the city. Hundreds of Serbian civilians were killed by Bosniaks during the war.
There are estimates that prior to the siege the population in the city proper was 4. Estimates of the current population range between 3. A large number of Sarajevans were killed or wounded throughout the siege. In 1. 99. 4, a report filed on the total number of deaths over a span of 3.
A report on the total number of persons wounded over a span of 3. This same report estimated the number of people killed or missing in the city to be nearly 1. An additional 5. 6,0. Of these, 6,1. 37 were ARBi. H soldiers and 2,2.